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Artifact 6c841f5dd1b0ae996b0494c8a31fd136b24a66fed32657511458a72ba437e11d:

  • File Select-Random.ps1 — part of check-in [0c5644fe85] at 2018-06-10 14:24:12 on branch trunk — Select a user-defined number of random elements from the collection … which can be passed as a parameter or input via the pipeline. An improvement over http://www.powershellcentral.com/scripts/60 which allows you to select more than one item, and doesn’t copy the full collection into RAM. (user: Joel Bennett size: 3562)

# encoding: ascii
# api: powershell
# title: Select-Random
# description: Select a user-defined number of random elements from the collection … which can be passed as a parameter or input via the pipeline. An improvement over http://www.powershellcentral.com/scripts/60 which allows you to select more than one item, and doesn’t copy the full collection into RAM.
# version: 2.0
# type: script
# author: Joel Bennett
# license: CC0
# x-poshcode-id: 81
# x-derived-from-id: 83
# x-archived: 2009-01-06T14:32:58
#
#
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
### <Script>
### <Author>
### Joel "Jaykul" Bennett
### </Author>
### <Description>
### Selects a random element from the collection either passed as a parameter or input via the pipeline.
### If the collection is passed in as an argument, we simply pick a random number between 0 and count-1
### for each element you want to return, but when processing pipeline input we want to keep memory use 
### to a minimum, so we use a "reservoir sampling" algorithm[1].
###
### [1] http://gregable.com/2007/10/reservoir-sampling.html
###
### The script stores $count elements (the eventual result) at all times. It continues processing 
### elements until it reaches the end of the input. For each input element $n (the count of the inputs 
### so far) there is a $count/$n chance that it becomes part of the result.
### * For each previously selected element, there is a $count/($n-1) chance of it being selected 
### * For the ones selected, there's a ($count/$n * 1/$count = 1/$n) chance of it being replaced, so a 
###   ($n-1)/$n chance of it remaining ... thus, it's cumulative probability of being among the selected
###   elements after the nth input is processed is $count/($n-1) * ($n-1)/$n = $count/$n, as it should be.
###
### </Description>
### <Usage>
### $arr = 1..5; Select-Random $arr
### 1..10 | Select-Random -Count 2
### </Usage>
### <Version>2.0.0.0</Version>
### </Script>
param([int]$count=1, [array]$inputObject=$null) 

BEGIN {
   if ($args -eq '-?') {
@"
Usage: Select-Random [[-Count] <int>] [-inputObject] <array> (from pipeline) [-?]

Parameters:
 -Count      : The number of elements to select.
 -Collection : The collection from which to select a random element.
 -?          : Display this usage information and exit

Examples:
 PS> $arr = 1..5; Select-Random $arr
 PS> 1..10 | Select-Random -Count 2

"@
exit
   } 
   elseif ($inputObject) 
   {
      ### If you're accepting $args, you need to pass those in...
      # Write-Output $io | &($MyInvocation.InvocationName) $args;
      Write-Output $inputObject | &($MyInvocation.InvocationName) -Count $count
      break;
   }
   else
   {
      $seen = 0
      $selected = new-object object[] $count
      $rand = new-object Random
   }
}
PROCESS {
   if($_) {
      $seen++
      if($seen -lt $count) {
         $selected[$seen-1] = $_
      } ## For each input element $n there is a $count/$n chance that it becomes part of the result.
      elseif($rand.NextDouble() -gt $count/$seen)
      {
         ## For the ones previously selected, there's a 1/$n chance of it being replaced
         $selected[$rand.Next(0,$count)] = $_
      }
   }
}
END {
   if (-not $inputObject)
   {  ## DO ONCE: (only on the re-invoke, not when using -inputObject)
      Write-Verbose "Selected $count of $seen elements"
      Write-Output $selected
      # foreach($el in $selected) { Write-Output $el }
   }
}